Tuesday, September 26, 2017

How the media distorts, lies and misrepresents reality for a fantastical wish

black man yelling with white men.
YouTube screenshot from New York Times documentary about a refugee in Germany.
It is strange to think that there was a time when I bought The New York Times every morning and pored through it over my coffee, genuinely convinced that I was reading the most reliable news source on the planet. In my defense, I was very young. And The New York Times was a better paper then, although nowhere near as good as I thought it was. It has, in any event, long since become a travesty – a propaganda sheet that systematically, and dangerously, distorts the truth about the most crucial issues of our time.
Case in point: a 14-minute “Times documentary” entitled “Seeking Asylum in Germany – and Finding Hatred.” Credited to Ainara Tiefenthäler, Shane O'Neill, and Andrew Michael Ellis, and posted front and center on the Times website last Thursday, it's about Abode, a tall, lanky 22-year-old Libyan refugee who, at the beginning of the film, has been living in the Saxon town of Bautzen (pop. 41,000) for over two years.
From the outset, Abode is presented as an innocent victim of racist hatred. We see him in his room at the Bautzen asylum center, talking softly, his large brown eyes oozing sensitivity. We see a cell-phone video in which a young white woman half his size kicks and hits him, apparently without provocation. We see him rehearsing for a hip-hop stage adaptation of Romeo and Juliet in which he plays Mercutio; the theater director, a middle-aged woman, speaks of him glowingly.
Providing contrast to this peaceable young man, we see a ragtag neo-Nazi group in Bautzen's town square, waving flags and praising Donald Trump. And we see close-ups of racist online comments (in German) about refugees.
Abode says that when he used to see pictures of Europe on TV, he thought it looked wonderful. But now he hates it. “Libya is the land of good,” he says. Germany, by contrast, is a land of Nazis.
“Nazi” is a word he uses a lot. He says he's had “problems with Nazis and the police” ever since his arrival in Germany. Eventually we discover that he's been described in the local media as the head of a gang of refugees who engage in rioting and violence. We see a newspaper front page featuring a picture of him aiming a machine gun.
But Abode has explanations. The picture with the gun, he says, was taken at a wedding, where the guests fired rounds to celebrate. He claims that he's never started a riot, but only acted in self-defense. He admits to having committed an act of violence, but only because he “blew up” at the sight of a Nazi rally. The theater director makes a curious statement: “He is someone who steps to the front when there is conflict.” She makes it sound as if he's some kind of peacemaker, trying to put an end to conflict – not a gang leader, inciting conflict.
Toward the end of the documentary, we jump to “three months later.” An intertitle reads: “Since last year's clashes between far-right locals and refugees in Bautzen, the police have opened up two dozen investigations of Abode.” Clashes? Why haven't we see any of these “clashes”? Investigations? Two dozen? For what? The film doesn't tell us.
We're told Abode has been identified as “a public safety risk.” Why? The implicit message is that Abode is a victim of untiring police harassment. We've heard him complain about his “problems with Nazis and the police.” The film seems to want us to equate the two.
Finally, we're shown Abode on the asylum center roof, threatening to jump. An end title informs us that he didn't jump, has been relocated to an asylum center in another town, and is banned from Bautzen for three months. Finis. 
After seeing Abode depicted as an undeserving object of hatred in a town full of neo-Nazis, I turned to the local German newspapers. They told a different story. Abode's real name, I discovered, is apparently Mohamed Youssef. (The papers do him the favor of reducing his surname to an initial, “T” for Targi.) He came to Germany in 2014.
Here's one detail omitted by the documentary: our hero calls himself “King Abode,” just as a Mafia don in a Sicilian village might call himself its king. One source points out something that's obvious from the first moments of the film: while Abode claims to be from Libya, he doesn't look Libyan – my guess would be he's really from Somalia.
According to the German papers, Abode has caused plenty of trouble in Bautzen: he's committed robberies, sold drugs, harassed women, thrown bottles at cops. And more, much more. But town authorities have gone soft on him in the name of “peaceful coexistence.” His asylum application was rejected, but he can't be deported because it's on appeal. What's more, in defiance of the ban mentioned at the end of the film, Abode has returned repeatedly to the asylum center in Bautzen. Instead of punishing him for this, town officials have tried to work out a compromise, such as allowing Abode to stay at the Bautzen asylum center but asking him to stay away from the town square.
To read these stories about Abode is to see the narrative of the Times documentary completely unravel. Far from being a victim of police brutality, he turns out to be a thug who thumbs his nose at the law. Instead of being Nazi bullies, the folks that run Bautzen out of town prove to be toothless — scared to subject even the most dangerous of rejected asylum seekers to even the mildest of punishments. No surprise here, of course: if this town really were full of Nazis, as the film suggests, Abode would've beat a hasty retreat long ago — or ended up in a shallow grave in the woods.
The German newspapers make the facts crystal clear: this young man is a predator who's been allowed to torment and terrorize an entire town for over two years, and whom multiculturalism-infatuated local officials, police, and courts have been terrified to touch.
That's Germany today – the very opposite of what the New York Times wants you to believe.

Socialism: The dream of getting something for nothing


The mystery of socialism’s enduring appeal

23 September 2017
9:00 AM
One of the mysteries of our age is why socialism continues to appeal to so many people. Whether in the Soviet Union, China, Eastern Europe, North Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, Cambodia or Venezuela, it has resulted in the suppression of free speech, the imprisonment of political dissidents and, more often than not, state-sanctioned mass murder. Socialist economics nearly always produce widespread starvation, something we were reminded of last week when the President of Venezuela urged people not to be squeamish about eating their rabbits. That perfectly captures the trajectory of nearly every socialist experiment: it begins with the dream of a more equal society and ends with people eating their pets. Has there ever been an ideology with a more miserable track record?
Why, then, did 40 per cent of the British electorate vote for a party led by Jeremy Corbyn last June? It wasn’t as if he acknowledged that all previous attempts to create a socialist utopia had failed and explained why it would be different under him. There was no fancy talk of ‘post-neoclassical endogenous growth theory’ or ‘pre-distribution’, as there had been by his two predecessors. No, he was selling exactly the same snake oil that every left-wing huckster has been peddling for the past 100 years, and in exactly the same bottle. He reminded me of a pharmacist trying to flog thalidomide to an expectant mother while making no attempt to hide the fact that it has caused the deaths of at least 2,000 children and serious birth defects in more than 10,000 others. And yet, nearly 13 million Britons voted for Corbyn. Could it be that they just don’t know about all the misery and suffering that socialism has unleashed?
That’s a popular theory on my side of the political divide and has prompted a good deal of head-scratching about how best to teach elementary history — such as that more people were killed by Stalin than by Hitler. One suggestion is to create a museum of communist terror that documents all the people murdered in the great socialist republics — and full credit to the journalist James Bartholomew for getting some traction behind this idea. But is it really historical ignorance that prompts people to invest their hopes in Corbyn? An inconvenient fact for holders of this theory is that those who voted Labour at the last election tended to be better educated than those who voted Tory.
To try and solve the puzzle of socialism’s enduring appeal, we have to turn to evolutionary psychologists and in particular Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, two of the leading thinkers in the field. They contend that we don’t come into the world as tabulae rasae, ready to take on the imprint of whatever society we happen to be born into. Rather, we are more like smartphones that come pre-loaded with various apps, including a set of moral intuitions. The problem is, these apps haven’t been updated for 40,000 years. They were designed for small bands of hunter-gatherers rather than citizens of the modern world and prompt us to look more favourably on socialism than free-market capitalism. Why? Because in hunter-gatherer societies, where the pooling of resources is essential for survival, the principle of ‘from each according to his ability, to each according to his need’ makes perfect sense. By the same token, we have a great deal of difficulty grasping that people acting in an individual, self-interested way can create huge communal benefits, as it does under capitalism. Back in the primeval forest, our survival depended upon distrusting people who weren’t willing to engage in reciprocal altruism.
In hunter-gatherer societies, goods are finite. If someone has more than his fair share of meat, there is less for everyone else. That’s not true of capitalist societies, where successful entrepreneurs such as Steve Jobs create wealth without taking anything away from others; but because we’re programmed to think of resources in a zero-sum way we cannot easily understand this. Instead, we’re inclined to believe people like Corbyn when they tell us the rich only got that way by stealing from the poor.
This zero-sum thinking doesn’t just explain why people cannot readily understand the concept of wealth being created under capitalism; it also explains why seeing people with more than us can lead to envy and resentment. We look at their lavish property and, on some primitive, hunter-gatherer level, believe they’ve only come by what they have by depriving us of what we’re entitled to. All property is theft. This thinking can often lead to a desire to tear down the person in question, to reduce their status so it’s level with ours. The anthropologist Christopher Boehm believes that this violent impulse underpins all egalitarian ideologies, which might explain why intellectuals, Jews and middle-class property owners are often interned in prison camps and/or put to death in socialist societies. (See Russia, China, Cambodia, etc.) Interestingly, Boehm points out that chimpanzees, with whom we share a common ancestor, are also prone to the same tall-poppy syndrome. I recommend his book Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior if you want to learn more about the pathological roots of socialism.
So what’s the solution? Are we doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past? Hopefully not, but we need to tell a story about capitalism that is just as appealing to people’s 40,000-year-old moral intuitions as the sales patter of socialist snake oil salesmen.

Walter Williams: The undeniable truth is that neither slavery nor Jim Crow nor the harshest racism has decimated the black family the way the welfare state has.


Walter Williams column: The welfare state's legacy

hand held out
That the problems of today’s black Americans are a result of a legacy of slavery, racial discrimination and poverty has achieved an axiomatic status, thought to be self-evident and beyond question. This is what academics and the civil rights establishment have taught. But as with so much of what’s claimed by leftists, there is little evidence to support it.
The No. 1 problem among blacks is the effects stemming from a very weak family structure. Children from fatherless homes are likelier to drop out of high school, die by suicide, have behavioral disorders, join gangs, commit crimes and end up in prison. They are also likelier to live in poverty-stricken households.
But is the weak black family a legacy of slavery?
In 1960, just 22 percent of black children were raised in single-parent families.
Fifty years later, more than 70 percent of black children were raised in single-parent families.
Here’s my question: Was the increase in single-parent black families after 1960 a legacy of slavery, or might it be a legacy of the welfare state ushered in by the War on Poverty?
According to the 1938 Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, that year 11 percent of black children were born to unwed mothers. Today about 75 percent of black children are born to unwed mothers.
Is that supposed to be a delayed response to the legacy of slavery? The bottom line is that the black family was stronger the first 100 years after slavery than during what will be the second 100 years.
At one time, almost all black families were poor, regardless of whether one or both parents were present.
Today roughly 30 percent of blacks are poor. However, two-parent black families are rarely poor.
Only 8 percent of black married-couple families live in poverty. Among black families in which both the husband and wife work full time, the poverty rate is under 5 percent. Poverty in black families headed by single women is 37 percent.
The undeniable truth is that neither slavery nor Jim Crow nor the harshest racism has decimated the black family the way the welfare state has.
The black family structure is not the only retrogression suffered by blacks in the age of racial enlightenment.
In every census from 1890 to 1954, blacks were either just as active as or more so than whites in the labor market. During that earlier period, black teen unemployment was roughly equal to or less than white teen unemployment. As early as 1900, the duration of black unemployment was 15 percent shorter than that of whites; today it’s about 30 percent longer.
Would anyone suggest that during earlier periods, there was less racial discrimination? What goes a long way toward an explanation are the various labor laws and regulations promoted by liberals and their union allies that cut the bottom rungs off the economic ladder and encourage racial discrimination.
Labor unions have a long history of discrimination against blacks. Frederick Douglass wrote about this in his 1874 essay, “’The Folly, Tyranny, and Wickedness of Labor Unions,” and Booker T. Washington did so in his 1913 essay, “The Negro and the Labor Unions.”
To the detriment of their constituents, most of today’s black politicians give unquestioning support to labor laws pushed by unions and white liberal organizations.
Then there’s education. Many black 12th-graders deal with scientific problems at the level of whites in the sixth grade. They write and do math about as well as white seventh- and eighth-graders. All of this means that an employer hiring or a college admitting the typical black high school graduate is in effect hiring or admitting an eighth-grader. Thus, one should not be surprised by the outcomes.
The most damage done to black Americans is inflicted by those politicians, civil rights leaders and academics who assert that every problem confronting blacks is a result of a legacy of slavery and discrimination. That’s a vision that guarantees perpetuity for the problems.
Walter E. Williams is a professor of economics at George Mason University.

Detroit police chief: FBI is wrong. Detroit is not most violent city in U.S.

Detroit police chief: FBI is wrong. Detroit is not most violent city in U.S.

Newly released FBI statistics paint Detroit as the most dangerous big city in America.  
One former FBI chief suspects other cities cooked their numbers to rank better.
Police Chief James Craig says the FBI data is flat wrong.
"I reject it," Craig said of the FBI report on Monday, saying his own data using a new software system shows violent crime in Detroit went down 5% in 2016, and has been trending downward since 2013.
The FBI's numbers tell a different story, showing that the number of violent crimes increased by 15.7% in Detroit between 2015 and 2016, from 11,346 to 13,705. Violent crimes included murders, rapes, assaults and robberies.
The city witnessed more murders last year than Los Angeles, which has nearly six times as many people, according to the new FBI crime figures. 

The jump in crime gave the Motor City the designation of No. 1 on the list of most violent cities in the U.S. with populations of more than 100,000. Behind Detroit, rounding out the top five most-violent big cities are St. Louis at No. 2 (it was No. 1 last year with Detroit in the No. 2 position), followed by Memphis, Baltimore and Rockford, according the FBI's 2016 Uniform Crime Report.
In comparison, Chicago, which in 2016 saw its deadliest year for homicides in decades, came in at No. 24 on the list.  Chicago had 763 murders in 2016 — more than double Detroit's 303 homicides — and more than 30,000 violent crimes. But with a population of 2.7 million people, about four times that of Detroit, Chicago's per capita crime rate was 1,105 crimes per 100,000 residents. Detroit's was twice that: 2,047.
That per capita rate is what gave Detroit the unfortunate No. 1 title.

Chief Craig at a news conference Monday — ironically held near the scene of police standoff with a man armed with a knife — contested the FBI's numbers, stating: "Just because it's coming out of the FBI" doesn't mean it's accurate. 
"I am confident the Detroit police crime statistics are very accurate," Craig said.
Andy Arena, Detroit's former FBI chief who now runs the Detroit Crime Commission, is equally skeptical about the FBI's data, saying he believes some cities "under-reported."

"I think there are cities out there who know how to play the game and rig the numbers," said Arena, who was especially alarmed to see that Chicago came in at No. 24 on the list, given its problem with violent crime.
"I'm shocked by that. How does that happen?," Arena said, stressing there's room for error in the FBI data.
"I've never personally been a big fan of those FBI reports," Arena said.
But, he conceded, Detroit does have a crime problem that needs more resources to fight.  
"it's a constant battle every day," Arena said. "There's still work to do."
Mayor Mike Duggan declined comment.
Among the numbers Craig took issue with were aggravated assaults, which he said is inflated by more than 1,000 in the FBI report. According to the FBI data, Detroit saw 9,882 assaults in 2016, but the DPD data says there were 8,916.
Here are some findings from the report:
Detroit saw 303 murders in 2016, compared to 295 the year before — a 3% increase.  In comparison, Los Angeles, which has 4 million people compared to Detroit's 669,000  — saw 295 murders in 2015. That's 8 fewer than Detroit.
Detroit, however, didn't have the highest murder rate. That title went to St. Louis, which had  a rate of 60 murders per 100,000 people in 2016. Baltimore was second with  a rate of 51 murders per 100,000. Detroit was third, with 45 murders per 100,000 residents.
In 2016, Detroit recorded 579 rapes; 9,882 aggravated assaults, and 2,941 robberies.

Craig said the FBI's numbers are off, largely because of an old computer system called CRISNET, which was replaced in December.  Here's how it used to work under the old system: Detroit police entered numbers into CRISNET. The numbers were picked up by the Michigan State Police, who reported them to the FBI.
Unfortunately, Craig explained, some crimes were double-reported under the old system — either through human error or because a crime was mischaracterized. For example, a crime looks like a murder, but turns out to be a suicide, he said. Or a robbery gets reported into the system, but another officer says it's a larceny. 
Craig said in the past, his agency alerted the FBI when it spotted a discrepancy, even when the numbers weren't in Detroit's favor. For example, he said, twice the FBI's numbers showed declines for aggravated assaults in Detroit, when there were actual increases.
"We were transparent and honest when they were under-reported," Craig said, adding "and now we want to do the same thing."
Craig said that DPD tried to alert the FBI about the mistake in assault numbers for 2016, but was told the reporting deadline had passed and that the CRISNET numbers would have to do.
"Over the last several years we've had a number of calls with the FBI and Michigan State Police. They know it," Craig said, stressing the new report that ranks Detroit as the most violent city is "very, very troubling."
But he did not dispute the FBI's homicide numbers for Detroit: 303 homicides in 2016, compared to 295 the year before.
"I've said oftentimes that 300 murders is still too high for a city of our population," Craig said. "But the key is — since 2013, we continue to trend downward."
Craig said Detroit's crime reporting system had been a thorn in his side since he took over as chief in 2013. But fortunately, he said, there's a new system in place that's been overseen by Wayne State University crime stat expert David Martin.
According to Craig, Martin scrubbed the old CRISNET system, fixed mistakes and plugged accurate numbers into the new system that shows a 5% decrease in violent crime. 
According to Craig, as of Monday, Detroit has seen 212 homicides this year, compared to 219 at this same time last year. Carjackings are also down for the same time period, as are robberies, nonfatal shootings and property crime, Craig said.
"Overall crime — as of Sept. 24 — is down 7%," Craig said, noting the department's goal is to reduce overall crime this year by 5%. "We just want to hold on so that we can keep our  numbers down." 
In releasing the statistics, the FBI cautioned against ranking cities, stating: "These rough rankings provide no insight into the numerous variables that mold crime in a particular town, city, county, state, tribal area, or region. Consequently, they lead to simplistic and/or incomplete analyses that often create misleading perceptions adversely affecting communities and their residents."
Nationwide, violent crimes also went up for the second consecutive year. According to the FBI data, the number of violent crimes rose 4.1% in 2016 from the year before. On the flip side, property crimes dropped 1.3% in 2016,  marking the 14th straight year for a decrease  in that crime category.
The FBI's data is based on crimes reported by law enforcement agencies. Of the 18,481 agencies eligible to participate in the project, 16,782 submitted data in 2016. 
Here are some findings:
  • In 2016, the nation saw 1.2 million violent crimes.
  • Murder and non-negligent manslaughter offenses increased 8.6% from 2015 - 2016.
  • Aggravated assault and rapes offenses increased 5.1% and 4.9%, respectively, and robbery increased 1.2%.
  • Nationwide, there were an estimated 7,919,035 property crimes.  Burglaries dropped 4.6%, larceny-thefts declined 1.5%, but motor vehicle thefts rose 7.4%.
  • Law enforcement agencies nationwide made 10.7 million arrests, excluding those for traffic violations, in 2016.

White privilege to be beaten by folks of color. Are whites entitled to defend themselves "By Any Means Necessary"?

Group Savagely Beat 2 Teenagers Inside Long Island Burger King

WARNING: The video above includes graphic content that some may find disturbing
A group of young suspects savagely attacked and beat a pair of teenagers inside a Long Island Burger King, an apparently unprovoked beating that was captured on video, police say.
Nassau County police said five men and two women brutally beat two 16-year-old boys inside the fast-food restaurant on West Merrick Road in Valley Stream last month. After the attack, the group of suspects took off.

The two victims were treated for cuts and bruises at an area hospital, police said.
Cops have not revealed a possible motive for the attack, but they said it doesn’t appear to be gang-related.

Video from inside the Burger King shows the group of suspects punching and kicking the victims during the brawl.
Police say they are still investigating and urge witnesses to call them with tips. The attackers remain at large. 

Lesbian mother of two member of AfD Party to run against Merkel

'I am a homosexual... no one seems to have got up and walked out': Far-right lesbian mother of two AGAINST gay marriage is set to take on Angela Merkel after triumph in German elections

  • Alice Weidel is key figure in Germany's far-right Alternative für Deutschland 
  • The 38-year-old former Goldman Sachs banker has two children with partner
  • She highlighted her sexuality on the campaign trail but opposed gay marriage
  • Now her AfD party has surged to success with 13 per cent of the vote 
  • Merkel's Christian Democratic Union party won most votes with 32.5pc support
  • Thousands of protesters took to the streets to denounce the result 

Witch doctors sacrificing children in this drought-stricken African country. Is it politically correct to mention this is primitive?

Witch doctors sacrificing children in this drought-stricken African country

KATABI, Uganda — Jackline Mukisa sobbed as she described how her 8-year-old son was found in a nearby swamp in February without teeth, lips, ears and genitals.
“My innocent son died a painful death,” said Mukisa, 28. “How could somebody intend to murder my son?”
A motorcyclist offered John Lubega a lift as he walked back from school, according to fellow students who saw him last. His remains suggest he was slowly killed as part of a human sacrifice ritual performed by witch doctors, apparently to appease the spirits, said Mukisa, who filed a police report.
No arrest has been made so far.
In this landlocked country whose diverse landscape includes the snow-capped Ruwenzori Mountains and immense Lake Victoria, many believe sacrificial rituals can bring quick wealth and health.
Among those rituals, human sacrifice, especially of children, occurs frequently despite the government’s efforts to stop it.
Seven children and two adults were sacrificed last year, said Moses Binoga, a police officer who heads Uganda’s Anti-Human Sacrifice and Trafficking Task Force. Seven children and six adults were sacrificed in 2015.
But experts said the number could be much higher.
Times are tough in Uganda, and people are looking to sacrifices to improve their fortunes. The worst drought in over half a century has hit parts of East Africa, leaving more than 11 million people in this nation facing food insecurity and 1.6 million on the brink of famine, according to the Ugandan government.
“There is no food due to the ongoing drought, and some believe that this has been brought by ancestral spirits,” said Joel Mugoya, a traditional healer. “So there is a high desire for people to conduct sacrifices so that they come out of this problem.”
Recently, Uganda police arrested 44 suspects in Katabi, a town 24 miles from the capital, Kampala, in connection with a spate of killings of children and women. Half of the suspects have been charged in court, including two alleged masterminds.
Uganda Police Inspector General Kale Kayihura said one suspect confessed to killing eight women. More than 21 women have been killed between May 3 and Sept. 4, Kayihura said.
“The murders were for ritual sacrifices,” he told residents last week. “We are working hard to arrest the remaining suspects and end the practice.”
Francis Bahati’s wife was among the victims. He discovered her body after three days of searching. Her fingers and feet had been cut off for ritual purposes, likely in hopes of securing better fortunes.
“I was shocked and even lost consciousness,” he said.
Last year police arrested Herbert Were, a resident of Busia town in eastern Uganda, for beheading his 8-year-old brother, Joel Ogema. Were, 21, confessed to police that he killed his brother in hopes of attaining wealth.
Church leaders are teaming up with police to end the brutal practice.
Pastor Peter Sewakiryanga, who heads Kyampisi Childcare Ministries, a Christian organization that fights child sacrifice in Uganda, said children disappear in the country every week. They are often found dead, or alive with missing body parts.
Most survivors or victims do not file police reports, Sewakiryanga said, adding that he implores victims to come forward.
“It’s a serious problem but we are fighting it with the help of the government,” he said.
Sacrifices often involve removing body parts, blood or tissue while the child is still alive.
“It’s a brutal ritual that destroys the lives of our children and affects their parents mentally,” he added. “We are working with the police to arrest witch doctors involved in the ritual. We are also assisting the survivors financially and with moral support.”
Sewakiryanga said his charity worked with Ugandan police three years ago to arrest a witch doctor and his accomplices who sacrificed a 7-year-old girl named Suubi.
The witch doctor drained her blood and cut out her genitals, he said. He then cut the neck and drained the blood of the girl’s 10-year-old brother, Kanani.
In June, a Ugandan court sentenced the witch doctor to life in prison.
Fears of witch doctors have hurt women who practice traditional medicine, however.
According to KidsRights, a global organization that advocates for children, Uganda has 650,000 registered traditional healers and an estimated 3 million unregistered practitioners. Unscrupulous witch doctors hide among so-called healers, the group said.
“They should arrest people who murdered my son,” Mukisa said. “The government is doing little to protect our children. They must begin to arrest all witch doctors.”
But Sewakiryanga said arresting everyone claiming to practice medicine was going too far. He hoped to end the practice by changing the hearts of those who promote human sacrifice.
Efforts to end the practice need to expand, he said. Other countries in Africa reported to be practicing child sacrifice include Tanzania, Nigeria, Swaziland, Liberia, Botswana, South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe.