BY CHRISTOPHER S. RUGABER AND CALVIN WOODWARD
WASHINGTON (AP) -- Bernie Sanders persisted in using shopworn stats on income inequality and Hillary Rodham Clinton glossed over the well-heeled donors to her campaign in the latest Democratic presidential debate.
Some of the claims in the debate Saturday night and how they compare with the facts:
CLINTON: "Since we last debated in Las Vegas, nearly 3,000 people have been killed by guns. Two hundred children have been killed. This is an emergency." She said that in the same period there have been 21 mass shootings, "including one last weekend in Des Moines where three were murdered."
THE FACTS: The claim appears to be unsupported on all counts.
The Gun Violence Archive has recorded 11,485 gun deaths in the U.S. so far this year, an average of just under 1,000 per month, making Clinton's figure appear to be highly exaggerated. The archive had more detailed data for children and teenagers, showing 70 from those age groups killed by firearms since the Democratic candidates debated Oct. 13 - not 200 as she claimed.
Asked to explain the discrepancy, Clinton's campaign pointed to 2013 statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and 2010 figures from the Children's Defense Fund. But that's not the time period she said she was talking about.
The only mass shooting recently in Des Moines was Nov. 8, when four people were shot at a night club. One was killed, not three.
SANDERS: "People are working longer hours for lower wages, and almost all of the new income and wealth goes to the top 1 percent."
THE FACTS: As he did in the last debate, Sanders leaned on outdated data.
In the first five years of the economic recovery, 2009-2014, the richest 1 percent captured 58 percent of income growth. That's according to Emmanuel Saez, a University of California economist whose research Sanders uses. That's a hefty share, but far short of "almost all."
In the first three years of the recovery, 2009-2012, the richest 1 percent did capture 91 percent of the growth in income. But part of that gain was an accounting maneuver as the wealthiest pulled income forward to 2012 in advance of tax increases that took effect in 2013 on the biggest earners.
Many companies paid out greater bonuses to their highest-paid employees in 2012 before the higher tax rates took effect. Those bonuses then fell back in 2013. And in 2014, the bottom 99 percent finally saw their incomes rise 3.3 percent, the biggest gain in 15 years.
SANDERS: "I am running a campaign differently than any other candidate. We are relying on small campaign donors, 750,000 of them, 30 bucks a piece. That's who I'm indebted to."
CLINTON: "I have hundreds of thousands of donors, most of them small."
THE FACTS: It's hardly unusual for most of a candidate's donors to be people who send small amounts. What's more telling about the nature of a candidate's appeal is how much of the campaign's money comes from small and big givers.
On that score, Clinton is taking the big money while Sanders is the one drawing from the grassroots.
Over the course of her presidential campaign, through the end of September, 17 percent of her total fundraising haul has come from donors giving $200 or less. For Sanders? Nearly 74 percent.
Moreover, Sanders has not blessed any super PACs to spend money on his behalf.
By contrast some of Clinton's top former aides are entrenched at a super PAC that is expecting to raise more than $100 million to help her throughout the course of the presidential race. That group has already netted at least seven separate $1 million checks from some of the wealthiest Democratic donors in the country.
MARTIN O'MALLEY: "Under Ronald Reagan's first term, the highest marginal rate was 70 percent."
THE FACTS: O'Malley's comment suggests that the economic recovery of 1983-84 occurred with a 70 percent tax rate on the richest Americans. Actually, one of President Ronald Reagan's first tax-cut bills, enacted into law in 1981, lowered the top tax rate from 70 percent to 50 percent. And in 1986, Reagan worked with Congress on a bipartisan bill to further lower the top rate to 28 percent.
CLINTON on the health care law: "The Republicans have voted to repeal it nearly 60 times."
THE FACTS: As much as Republicans wish to dismantle President Barack Obama's health care law, they haven't beaten their heads against the wall quite that often.
Many of the votes she is counting were to change or repeal specific parts of the sprawling law, a fine-tuning that Obama acquiesced to at times and some Democrats voted for. In June, the House voted to abolish one part of the law, a tax on medical device makers, with the support of 46 Democrats.
SANDERS: Break-up the big banks "and re-establish Glass-Steagall."
O'MALLEY: "We should have reinstated a modern version of Glass-Steagall."
CLINTON: "I just don't think it will get the job done" of preventing future financial crises.
THE FACTS: Economists tend to side with Clinton on this one.
The Glass-Steagall legislation was passed in the midst of the Great Depression and separated commercial from investment banking, among other things. The idea was to keep risky Wall Street business apart from retail banking, particularly since retail deposits are guaranteed by the federal government.
President Bill Clinton signed a law repealing Glass-Steagall in 1999, and many commentators argue that his move was an early example of a trend toward financial deregulation that made the 2008 financial crisis worse.
Yet many economists note that nearly all the large financial institutions that failed in the crisis, including Lehman Brothers, AIG, and Bear Stearns, were investment banks or insurance companies, and their failure wouldn't have been prevented if Glass-Steagall had still been in effect.
SANDERS: Speaking of calls to raise the minimum wage to $15 an hour: "You're seeing cities like Seattle. You're seeing cities like San Francisco, cities like Los Angeles doing it, and they are doing it well and workers are able to have more disposable income."
THE FACTS: The jury is still out on whether a $15 minimum wage will cause job losses in those big cities. Even some economists who argue that modest increases in the minimum don't cost jobs point out there is little research on the impact of such a large increase, which is more than double the current $7.25.
Outside high-cost urban areas, a $15 minimum would be a heavier lift for many businesses. The median hourly wage in eight states is below $15. (The median is the midpoint between the highest and lowest pay levels.)
Still, there is no consensus. The University of Chicago's Booth School of Business asked more than 40 economists if raising the minimum to $15 an hour by 2020 would "substantially" eliminate jobs for low-wage workers. About 40 percent said they were uncertain, while the rest were split between yes and no.
CLINTON: Sanders' health care plan would "eliminate" Medicare.
THE FACTS: Sanders' plan would incorporate Medicare into a broader system intended to cover all Americans. But that does not mean the government would stop paying for seniors' health care. Indeed, Sanders says Medicare is the model for his idea, which he calls "Medicare for all."
Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program would be also be absorbed by the new "single-payer" system envisioned by Sanders, which would be run by the states under federal rules.
Private insurance companies would be sidelined to selling supplemental coverage.
His plan specifies that Medicare beneficiaries would be covered during the transition.
Associated Press writers Alicia A. Caldwell, Julie Bykowicz and Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar contributed to this report.
EDITOR'S NOTE - A look at political claims that take shortcuts with the facts or don't tell the full story.
1. U.S. acceptance of coexistence as the only alternative to atomic war.
2. U.S. willingness to capitulate in preference to engaging in atomic war.
3. Develop the illusion that total disarmament of the United States would be a demonstration of moral strength.
4. Permit free trade between all nations regardless of Communist affiliation and regardless of whether or not items could be used for war.
5. Extension of long-term loans to Russia and Soviet satellites.
6. Provide American aid to all nations regardless of Communist domination.
7. Grant recognition of Red China. Admission of Red China to the U.N.
8. Set up East and West Germany as separate states in spite of Khrushchev's promise in 1955 to settle the German question by free elections under supervision of the U.N.
9. Prolong the conferences to ban atomic tests because the United States has agreed to suspend tests as long as negotiations are in progress.
10. Allow all Soviet satellites individual representation in the U.N.
11. Promote the U.N. as the only hope for mankind. If its charter is rewritten, demand that it be set up as a one-world government with its own independent armed forces. (Some Communist leaders believe the world can be taken over as easily by the U.N. as by Moscow. Sometimes these two centers compete with each other as they are now doing in the Congo.)
12. Resist any attempt to outlaw the Communist Party.
13. Do away with all loyalty oaths.
14. Continue giving Russia access to the U.S. Patent Office.
15. Capture one or both of the political parties in the United States.
16. Use technical decisions of the courts to weaken basic American institutions by claiming their activities violate civil rights.
17. Get control of the schools. Use them as transmission belts for socialism and current Communist propaganda. Soften the curriculum. Get control of teachers' associations. Put the party line in textbooks.
18. Gain control of all student newspapers.
19. Use student riots to foment public protests against programs or organizations which are under Communist attack.
20. Infiltrate the press. Get control of book-review assignments, editorial writing, policymaking positions.
21. Gain control of key positions in radio, TV, and motion pictures.
22. Continue discrediting American culture by degrading all forms of artistic expression. An American Communist cell was told to "eliminate all good sculpture from parks and buildings, substitute shapeless, awkward and meaningless forms."
23. Control art critics and directors of art museums. "Our plan is to promote ugliness, repulsive, meaningless art."
24. Eliminate all laws governing obscenity by calling them "censorship" and a violation of free speech and free press.
25. Break down cultural standards of morality by promoting pornography and obscenity in books, magazines, motion pictures, radio, and TV.
26. Present homosexuality, degeneracy and promiscuity as "normal, natural, healthy."
27. Infiltrate the churches and replace revealed religion with "social" religion. Discredit the Bible and emphasize the need for intellectual maturity which does not need a "religious crutch."
28. Eliminate prayer or any phase of religious expression in the schools on the ground that it violates the principle of "separation of church and state."
29. Discredit the American Constitution by calling it inadequate, old-fashioned, out of step with modern needs, a hindrance to cooperation between nations on a worldwide basis.
30. Discredit the American Founding Fathers. Present them as selfish aristocrats who had no concern for the "common man."
31. Belittle all forms of American culture and discourage the teaching of American history on the ground that it was only a minor part of the "big picture." Give more emphasis to Russian history since the Communists took over.
32. Support any socialist movement to give centralized control over any part of the culture--education, social agencies, welfare programs, mental health clinics, etc.
33. Eliminate all laws or procedures which interfere with the operation of the Communist apparatus.
34. Eliminate the House Committee on Un-American Activities.
35. Discredit and eventually dismantle the FBI.
36. Infiltrate and gain control of more unions.
37. Infiltrate and gain control of big business.
38. Transfer some of the powers of arrest from the police to social agencies. Treat all behavioral problems as psychiatric disorders which no one but psychiatrists can understand.
39. Dominate the psychiatric profession and use mental health laws as a means of gaining coercive control over those who oppose Communist goals.
40. Discredit the family as an institution. Encourage promiscuity and easy divorce.
41. Emphasize the need to raise children away from the negative influence of parents. Attribute prejudices, mental blocks and retarding of children to suppressive influence of parents.
42. Create the impression that violence and insurrection are legitimate aspects of the American tradition; that students and special-interest groups should rise up and use united force to solve economic, political or social problems.
43. Overthrow all colonial governments before native populations are ready for self-government.
44. Internationalize the Panama Canal.
45. Repeal the Connally reservation so the United States cannot prevent the World Court from seizing jurisdiction over nations and individuals alike.